Who runs the CFR?
CFR-PTN is also one of the institutions that make up the UNESCO Associated Schools Network. By promoting an integrated education aligned with the priorities of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the school fosters the sustainable development of the region where it is located.
CFR-PTN is inserted in a predominantly rural context, in which the students’ properties are distant from the school’s headquarters. Seeking to facilitate the logistics of access, the institution has as its methodology the Pedagogy of Alternation, in which the students spend one week in an integral period at the school, with practical and theoretical classes, and two weeks at home, applying what they have learned and sharing knowledge with the communities. In this way, they become positive references, consolidate themselves as young leaders and contribute to improve the quality of life of everyone around them.
The idea of constitutional supremacy finds its origins almost at the same time as the birth of the control of constitutionality; first, the idea is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution of 1787, and subsequently strengthened with the decision of Justice John Marshall in the Marbury v. Madison case. This, and the case of Dr. Bonham decided by the English judge Sir Edward Coke in the previous century, are considered the primordial bases of the control of constitutionality, and therefore of the consolidation of constitutional supremacy.
Whoever will consider with attention the different departments of power, will perceive that in a government in which they are separated, the judicial, from the nature of its functions, will always be the least dangerous to the political rights of the Constitution, because its situation will enable it to hinder or injure them in a less degree than the other powers…(The judicial power) influences neither the arms, nor the treasury; it directs neither the wealth nor the strength of society, and can take no active resolution….
Council on foreign relations members
“If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the outcome of hundreds of battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory won you will also suffer a defeat. If you don’t know the enemy or yourself, you are going to give in to every battle.”
If we don’t understand our class enemy, how they are organized and what their strengths and weaknesses are, then we are going to lose. Losing to an enemy like this – because this enemy is like a grizzly bear: big, and lethal – is very dangerous. Our job is to study the class enemy – the capitalist class – in order to defeat it.
According to the work of William Domhoff, the capitalist class rules by means of four processes. They are 1) the special interest process 2) the policy formation process 3) the candidate selection process 4) the ideological process. It is arguable that there is a fifth: 5) the process of violence. Let’s look at each.
1) The special interest process is the way in which the specific interests of certain businesses and industries always seem to dominate government decisions. This is accomplished by the penetration of government by business at all levels. Business is the source of personnel for government jobs, usually in the very area that government is supposed to regulate. These people are called In-and-Outers. because they come from the business sector, then go into government, and then, when they leave government, return to the private sector in the same area of business. For example, Timothy Geithner was the Secretary of the Treasury. He originally worked for Henry Kissinger at Kissinger Associates and later became the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. As soon as he left government, he became the CEO of Warburg Pincus, a $350 billion private equity firm. He is also a distinguished member of the Council on Foreign Relations/ CFR is very prominent-although not the key player-in the Special Interests process.
We begin with this CFR Incoterm, with the terms that already include on the part of the seller the obligatory nature of the contracting and payment of the main carriage. This does not imply that the one who bears the risks when the cargo has been transferred is still the seller, even if he has contracted and paid the main carriage, the transfer of risk will take place when the cargo is transferred. Therefore, who will assume the risk on the goods will be the buyer (or importer at international level).
The seller/exporter is obliged to contract and pay all costs until the goods are placed at the port of destination. However, the goods are delivered and the risks are transferred to the buyer at the port of shipment (origin), when the goods are on board the vessel (see Figure 1).
Other considerations to take into account, this time for the buyer, will be that he will not be able to intervene in the choice of the vessel that will carry out the main transport. Since the buyer is not in charge of hiring or paying for the main carriage but is responsible for what happens to the cargo during the carriage, this may constitute one more risk factor that the buyer will have to assume with this term. The buyer may have the option of suggesting to the seller the most suitable shipping company to carry out the transport, and of course, also the possibility of taking out insurance for his goods.